“Denial of confession” by Ilya Repin
Repin wrote people turned into cattle, barge haulers pulling barges along the river. Dared to write the Russian tsar, who killed his own son. Reflecting on the history of his…

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How miniatures were created on enamel in the 17-18 centuries. Enamel.
What is a miniature on enamel, or enamel? How did these charming little images appear and spread in Russia, most often portraits that conveyed to us the breath of their…

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A brief history of the landscape in painting

The first drawings that were made by man have been known since primitive times, and even then people, along with themselves and animals, depicted nature with their deeds and concerns. It was rather sketchy, but still allowed to admire the talent and innate sense of admiration for nature and its beauty.
Later, the ancient Greeks and Romans depicted their own gardens or the gardens of their masters, creating beautifully beautiful frescoes. Almost all the heritage of the Greeks and Romans depicting the local nature disappeared, evaporated and was destroyed by many centuries of history. But people of that time did not do the best of the landscape, simply forgetting about it and depicting trees and vegetation, hills or mountains solely as a setting for human life.
From the 16th century, when, following the strict canonization of painting and all culture under theology, the humanization of art came to faith in God and theology, landscape again became one of the main genres of painting. Landscape has become a part of human life, inherently connected with it and showing not only the beauty of nature, but also man as the crown of this nature.
It was Holland that became the pioneer country of the landscape in our modern understanding. This country, which from the 17th century began to develop rapidly in comparison with other European countries, increased the potential of the middle class. Representatives of this class, who were, of course, educated, well-read and striving for something great, important and valuable, decorated the walls of their apartments and houses with various objects of painting. Including, letting myself brag to my friends and relatives with excellent views of the best places in Europe and the East, which at this particular time period begins to be actively mastered and studied.
By the end of the XVIII century. to Holland as to the country where portrait painting was developing, England was added, whose wealthy nobles went on trips around the world to observe and depict people, phenomena and nature, as well as France. Such trips were called the Grand Tour, and along with the name, the huge popularity among those representatives of the nobility who could afford such trips.
Of course, the culmination of the development of portraiture can be called the nineteenth century. It was during this period, or rather in the second half of the XIX century, landscapes began to be written in the open air, that is, in the fresh air, in nature. This innovation was introduced by Barbizons, representatives of the Barbizon school of painting in France.
And the same French abandoned the canons of the Academy of Arts, created their own independent impressionist community and wrote nature as they saw it. Perhaps the best landscape painter of that time can be called Claude Monet, who had a tremendous impact on many twentieth-century landscape painters who painted with oil.
But before the twentieth century there were such names as Paul Cezanne and Vincent Van Gogh who created quite unusual works, equally unusual in showing the nature of their native land and other, foreign states.A brief history of the landscape in painting

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How miniatures were created on enamel in the 17-18 centuries. Enamel.
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