THE COLLECTION OF THE ICON-COPY OF YAROSLAVL ART MUSEUM
The beginning of the collection of icons was laid by the Yaroslavl Restoration Commission, established in 1918 (since 1924, the Yaroslavl branch of the GRGR). One of the main goals set before the commission was overcoming the consequences of the White Guard uprising that occurred in the summer of 1918. During its suppression, artillery hit the city in direct fire, and many architectural monuments were destroyed or badly damaged. Supervised by YAO TsGRM PD Baranovsky, the work on the restoration of icon painting was headed by N.I. Bryagin. A large role in saving the monuments of Yaroslavl was played by A.I. Anisimov, scientific adviser of the Central State Research Center, professor of Moscow and Yaroslavl universities. It Anisimov insisted on the removal of the most valuable monuments of easel painting from the churches and placing them in the restoration workshop of Yaroslavl to strengthen. At that time it was the only right decision to prevent the death of hundreds of icons.
In the conditions of lack of funds, the employees of the nuclear weapons personnel of the TsGRM strengthened emergency icons, brought works of old Russian art from the churches intended for demolition or adapted for the economic needs of the temples. But, unfortunately, due to the tight deadlines, the cramped vaults and the small number of staff, not all the icons were able to compile the necessary documents, and information about their origin was lost.
At the same time, work began on the disclosure of ancient icons from late entries and darkened linseed oil. More than 30 monuments, including the collections of the Museum of the Almighty Christ of the Almighty of the 13th century and the Mother of God of Tolgskaya in 1314, which became the pride of the museum, were restored in the YaO TsGRM. In 1926, the first exhibition of restored icons was successfully held in Yaroslavl.
In 1931, the nuclear weapons radiological explosives unit was liquidated, and the icons stored in it were transferred to the museum collection. Most of them came from the Spaso-Preobrazhensky, Tolgsky and Kazan monasteries, the Assumption Cathedral of Yaroslavl and the parish churches of the city.
During the Great Patriotic War, another test fell on the share of the museum collection of icons: the foundation was closed and sealed. For four years, the exhibits were in a damp, unventilated room, which is why many of them were affected by mold. When inspecting the Old Russian Foundation in 1946, the state of preservation of most of the monuments was recognized as emergency. Help Yaroslavl again provided the staff of the State Central Art and Restoration Workshops named after I.E. Grabar For a number of years, specialists from Moscow came to the museum and managed to remove a significant part of the foundation from the emergency state. The need for the restoration of the restoration workshop in Yaroslavl itself became obvious, and in 1952 it was finally opened. N.V. took an active part in the resumption of her activities. Pertsev, V.G. Bryusova, V.V. Filatov.
A special role in the preservation and study of Yaroslavl icon painting in subsequent decades was played by V.P. Mitrofanov and E.P. Yudin.
Vladimir Petrovich Mitrofanov (1904-1994), in his youth an activist-member of the Komsomol, a participant in the movement of militant atheists, being in his mature years in the museum, showed remarkable energy in saving Yaroslavl icons. Having no special education, he eagerly absorbed knowledge, drawing it from scientific works and from communication with Moscow restorers and museum workers – V.V. Filatov and N.A. Demina During the activities of Mitrofanov, who headed the museum in 1952-1959, and then became the head of the department of ancient Russian art, about 40 icons were uncovered in Moscow in the I. Grabar Center, including works of the 14th-15th centuries “Ilya the Prophet in the desert”. ”And“ Deesis ”from the Church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa on Vspolye and masterpieces of 17th century icon painting, painted by Seeds Spiridonov Kholmogorets.
Elena Pavlovna Yudina (1926-1992) contributed a lot to the restoration of the restoration of Yaroslavl icon painting in the city itself. She received her first mastery from Filatov, who often came to Yaroslavl. Subsequently, Yudina headed the local restoration workshop of tempera painting and led large-scale work on the disclosure of icons from the churches of Elijah the Prophet, Our Lady of Fedor and St. John Chrysostom in Korovniki.
In the 1960s, the collection of icon painting continued to grow: more than 300 works from the temples of Rostov, Borisoglebsky, Gavrilov-Yamsky, Bolsheselsky, Prechistensky, Uglichsky and Poshekhonsky districts of the Yaroslavl region came to the museum. This also included icons transferred from closed museums – the Anti-Religious in Yaroslavl and the local lore museum in Tutaev.
In 1964 the “Catalog of the collection of the State Yaroslavl-Rostov Historical-Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve” prepared by Mitrofanov and Yudina was published. A small section “Old Russian painting of the XIII – beginning of the XVIII century” reflected only the Yaroslavl part of the museum’s iconography collection, and yet it was the first experience of cataloging Yaroslavl iconography, which was the beginning of its systematic study.